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1.4. Genome-Exposome Interactions: Unlocking the Chronic Illnesses Mysteries

Various Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have revealed a relationship between multiple genetic susceptibilities and chronic diseases. Despite these established polygenic risks, Exposome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS) in monozygotic twins underscore the epigenetic roles of numerous exposomes as the predominant contributors to present-day illnesses.

Genetic predisposition determines host vulnerability to diseases, yet the lifetime exposome load determines the adaptive and counterregulatory host reactions. Once the host tolerance is exceeded, chronic disease pathophysiologies accumulate.

George L Wehby, PhD, Benjamin W Domingue, PhD, Fredric D Wolinsky, PhD, Genetic Risks for Chronic Conditions: Implications for Long-term Wellbeing, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 73, Issue 4, April 2018, Pages 477–483,

Rappaport SM. Genetic Factors Are Not the Major Causes of Chronic Diseases. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0154387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154387. PMID: 27105432; PMCID: PMC4841510.

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